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           Air Mass  -  A widespread body of air, the properties of which can be identified as  (a)
            having been established while that air was situated over a particular region, and (b)
            undergoing specific modifications while in transit away from the source region.

            Anticyclone (or High-Pressure System, High-Pressure Cell, or simply High)  -  An area
            within which the pressure is high relative to the surroundings.  The wind circulation is
            clockwise around an anticyclone in the Northern Hemisphere, with the wind crossing the
            isobars at an angle and blowing from higher toward lower pressure.  The wind circulation
            is counterclockwise around an anticyclone in the Southern Hemisphere, with the wind
            crossing the isobars at an angle and blowing from higher toward lower pressure.


           Backing  -  Refers to the shifting of the wind direction of a tropical cyclone observed by the
           observer  from northwest through southwest by way of west (also known as First Wind).  It also
           means that the storm is passing north of the locality (over the northern hemisphere).

           Best Track  -  A subjectively smoothed path, versus a precise and very erratic fix-to-fix  path,
           used to represent tropical cyclone movement, and based on an assessment of all available

           Binary Interaction  -  A mutual cyclonic orbit of two tropical cyclones around their
           centroid.  Lander and Holland (1993) showed that the behavior of most binary tropical
           cyclones consists of an approach, sudden capture, then a period of steady cyclonic orbit
           followed by a sudden escape or (less frequently) a merger.

           Buys Ballot's Law  -  This is a law describing the relationship of the horizontal wind
           direction in the atmosphere to the pressure distribution.  "If one stands with his back to the
           wind in the Northern Hemisphere, lower pressure will always be to the left, and higher
           pressure to the right."  "In the Southern Hemisphere, if one stands with his back to the
           wind, lower pressure will always be to the right, and higher pressure to the left."  This law
           was first formulated in 1857 by the Dutch meteorologist, Buys Ballot, and bears his name.
           It is also known as the Baric Wind Law.



           Center  -  The vertical axis or core of a tropical cyclone. Usually determined by cloud vorticity
           patterns, wind and/or pressure distribution.

           Center Fix  -  The location of the center of a tropical or subtropical cyclone obtained by means
           other than reconnaissance aircraft penetration.

           Concentric Eye Wall Cycles  -  Naturally occur in intense tropical cyclones (wind > 185 kph or
           100 kt).  As tropical cyclone reach this threshold of intensity, they usually -- but not always --
           have an eyewall and radius of maximum winds that contracts to a very small size, around 10 to
           25 km.  At this point, some of the outer rainbands may organize into an outer ring of
           thunderstorms that slowly moves inward and robs the inner eyewall of its needed moisture and
           momentum. During this phase, the tropical cyclone is weakening (i.e., the maximum winds die
           off a bit and the central pressure goes up).  Eventually, the outer eyewall replaces the inner one
           completely and the storm can be the same intensity as it was previously or, in some cases,
           even stronger. A concentric eyewall cycle occured in Hurricane Andrew (1992) before landfall
           near Miami:  a strong intensity was reached,  an outer eyewall formed,  this contracted in
           concert with a pronounced weakening of the storm, and as the outer eyewall completely
           replaced the original one (inner eyewall), the hurricane re-intensified.  Another example can be
           seen here on Hurricane David's radar composite photo.
           Convergence  -  The contraction of a vector field. In meteorology, the term is used in a
           broad sense to include the "coming together," or meeting, of winds (air particles) from dif-
           ferent directions or areas (horizontally or vertically).  Mathematically, convergence is nega-
           tive divergence.

           Cyclone (or Low-Pressure System, or simply Low or Depression)  -  An area within which
           the pressure is low relative to the surroundings.  An atmospheric "closed circulation" with the
           winds blowing counterclockwise around cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere, and clockwise
           around cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere.  The winds cross the isobars at an angle (15
           degrees over water and 30 degrees over land), and blow from higher toward lower pressure.

           Divergence  -  The expansion, or spreading out, of a vector field.  In meteorology, the term is
           used in a broad sense to include the "spreading apart," or drawing apart, of winds (air parti-
           cles) either horizontally or vertically.

           Easterly Wave  -  See Tropical Wave.

           Ephemeris  -  Position of a body (satellite) in space as a function of time; used for gridding
           satellite imagery.  Since ephemeris gridding is based solely on the predicted position of the
           satellite, it is susceptible to errors from vehicle wobble, orbital eccentricity, the oblateness of the
           Earth, and variation in vehicle speed.

           Explosive Deepening  -  A decrease in the minimum sea-level pressure of a tropical cyclone
           of 2.5 mb/hr for at least 12 hours or 5 mb/hr for at least six (6) hours (Dunnavan 1981).

           Extratropical  -  A term used to indicate that a cyclone has lost its "tropical" characteristics.
           The term implies both poleward displacement from the tropics and the conversion of the
           cyclone's primary energy source from the release of latent heat of condensation to baroclinic
           processes.  It is important to note that cyclones can become extratropical and still maintain
           winds of typhoon or storm force.

           Eye  -  The central area of a tropical cyclone when it is more than half surrounded by wall
           cloud.  Also known as the relatively calm center of a tropical cyclone where the sky may be
           clear or just partly cloudy.

           Eye Wall  -  See Wall Cloud.

           Front  -  The interface, or transition zone, between two air masses of different density.  Since
           the temperature distribution is the most important "regulator" of atmospheric density, a front
           usually separates air masses of different temperature.  Fronts are drawn as "lines" separating
           different air masses on weather maps.  Following are the four (4) types of fronts:
        •  Cold Front  -  A front along which colder air replaces warmer air.  Usually accom-
                   nied by cumulus-type low clouds and heavy showers, sometimes  thundershowers
                   with violent squalls.
        •  Warm Front  -  A front along which warmer air replaces colder air.  Usually  prece-
                   ded by gradually lowering and thickening stratus-type clouds, a steady type of rain or
                   drizzle, and falling pressure.
        •  Occluded Front  -  A front resulting when a cold front overtakes a warm front and  the
                   warm air is "lifted" off the earth's surface (forced aloft).  Weather and clouds prece-
                   ding warm fronts.  There is no warm air at the earth's surface, however, as the front
        •  Stationary Front  -  A front along which one air mass does not replace another air
                   mass.  The front is not moving.
           Fujiwhara Effect  -  The interaction between two, three, or four tropical cyclones within 1500
           km of each other.  These tropical cyclones either attract or repel each other.

           Gale  -  An unusually strong wind.  In storm warning terminology, a wind of 52-102 kph (28-
           47 knots).

           GMT  -  Stands for Greenwhich Mean Time (Greenwhich, London) or Universal Time.  Example,
           0000 GMT (+ 8) = 8:00 am Philippine/Hong Kong Time.

           GMS  -  Stands for Geostationary Meteorological Satellite and is owned by Japan.  This
           satellite covers most of Asia in observing weather patterns and disturbances.

           GOES  - An American weather satellite which stands for Geostationary Operational
           Environmental Satellite. It covers most of the continental U. S. plus some areas like Canada,
           South America, parts of the Pacific, etc.

           Gust(s)  -  Also known as gustiness - the peak wind speed or the sudden, temporary increase
           in wind speed.  Maximum sustained wind speeds of 56 kph may have superimposed gusts of
           93 kph.

           High Pressure Area/Cell  -  See Anticyclone.

           Hurricane Season  -  That portion of the year having a relatively high incidence of hurricanes.
           In the Atlantic, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico, this is the period from June through November;
           in the eastern Pacific, June through November 15; and in the central Pacific, the period is from
           June through October.

           Intensity  -  The maximum sustained one (1) minute mean (10 min. in other weather bureaus)
           surface wind speed, typically within one degree of the center of a tropical cyclone.

           Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)  aka. Monsoon Trough-  An almost-continuous trough or belt of low
           pressure around the globe in the equatorial regions. It is where the NE trade winds (of the
           Northern Hemisphere) and the SE trades (of the Southern Hemisphere) converge, or come
           together.  The ITCZ is usually characterized by strong, ascending air currents, large areas of
           overcast skies, and frequent heavy showers and thunderstorms.  It  is also known by many
           different names:  the Equatorial Trough, the Equatorial Front, the Intertropical Front, the
           Equatorial Convergence Zone, etc.

           IR  -  stands for Infrared.  Used mostly on weather satellites to observed areas even during

           Isobar  -  A line of equal or constant pressure.  On weather maps, isobars are lines drawn
           through all points of equal atmospheric pressure along a given reference surface (such as
           mean-sea-level on surface weather maps).  Isobars are usually drawn at four-millibar intervals.


           Kona  -  A stormy, rain-bringing wind from the SW or SSW in Hawaii.  It occurs about five times
           per year on the southwest slopes, which are in the lee of the prevailing NE trade winds.  Kona is
           the Polynesian word meaning "leeward."


           Low Pressure Area / System (LPA)  -  See Cyclone.


           Maximum Sustained Wind(s)  -  The highest surface wind speed averaged over a 1-minute
           period of time.  Some weather bureaus (eg. PAGASA, Japan Meteorological Agency, etc.)
           averaged it over a 10-minute period of time.  (Peak gusts over water average 20 to 25 percent
           higher than sustained winds).

           Mei-yu Front  -  The term "mei-yu" is the Chinese expression for "plum rains."  The mei-yu front
           is a persistant east-west zone of disturbed weather during spring which is quasi-stationary and
           stretches from the east China coast, across Taiwan, and eastward into the Pacific south of

           METEOSAT  -  A European meterorological satellite.

           Monsoon  -  A seasonal wind produced by the alternate heating and cooling of land and sea
           masses.  The monsoon is more common in Asia and there two kinds:

        • Southwest or Summer Monsoon  -  This monsoon blows steadily from the SW, from about May to September.  These strong winds are accompanied  by heavy squalls and thunderstorms.  Rainfall is very much heavier - sometimes torrential - than during the winter monsoon.  As the season advances, rainfall and squalls become less frequent.  In other places, the wind becomes light and unsteady.  In other places, it continues reasonably steady.  Regions affected includes: Most of Asia (particularly South and Southeast Asia) and  Bangladesh.  In the Philippines, the summer monsoon becomes stronger whenever a LPA or tropical cyclone is present.
        • Northeast or Winter Monsoon  -  Blows from the NE, from about November to April.  It is a rather steady wind, frequently attaining a speed of 65 kph (35 mph).  Except for the windward slopes of mountainous or hilly areas, skies are generally clear to partly cloudy during the winter monsoon, and there is relatively little rain (except for the windward slopes of mountains).  However, some low cloudiness and/or light fog (yes, even at low latitudes) may occur along coastal areas.  Regions affected includes: Asia.  In Indonesia, winter monsoon is also known as the Northwest Monsoon - where the winds shifts from NE to NW after crossing the equator.

           Monsoon Depression  -  A tropical cyclonic vortex characterized by: 1) its large size, the
           outer-most closed isobar may have a diameter on the order of 1000 km (600 nm); 2) a loosely
           organized cluster of deep convective elements; 3) a low-level wind distribution which features a
           200-km (100-nm) diameter light-wind core which may be partially surrounded by a band of
           gales; and, 4) a lack of a distinct cloud system center.  Note: most monsoon depressions which
           form in the western North Pacific eventually acquire persistent central convection and
           accelerated core winds marking its transition into a conventional tropical cyclone.

           Monsoon Gyre  -  A mode of the summer monsoon circulation of the western North Pacific
           characterized by: 1) a very large nearly circular low-level cyclonic vortex that has an outer-most
           closed isobar with diameter on the order of 2500 km (1350 nm); 2) a cloud band rimming the
           southern through eastern periphery of the vortex/surface low; 3) a relatively long (two week) life
           span - initially, a subsident regime exists in its core and western and northwestern quadrants
           with light winds and scattered low cumulus clouds; later, the area within the outer closed isobar
           may fill with deep convective cloud and become a monsoon depression or tropical cyclone;
           and,  4) the large vortex cannot be the result of the expanding wind field of a pre-existing
           monsoon depression or tropical cyclone.  Note: a series of small or very small tropical cyclones
           may emerge from the "head" or leading edge of the peripheral cloud band of a monsoon gyre.
           (JTWC 1993; Lander 1994a).

        N, O


           PAR (Philippine Area of Responsibility)  -  An area bounded by rhumb lines on the
           Philippine Tropical Cyclone Tracking Chart/Map or imaginary lines on the surface of the earth
           that makes equal oblique angles with all meridians joining the following points:  25°N  120°E,
           5°N 135°E, 5°N 115°E, 15°N 115°E, and 21°N 120°E.  Tropical cyclone bulletins are issued by
           the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA)
           every six or twelve hours for all tropical cyclones within this area.

           Present Movement  -  the best estimate of the movement of the center of a tropical cyclone at
           a given time and at a given position.  This estimate does not reflect the short-period,
           small-scale oscillations of the cyclone's center.

           Pressure (Atmopsheric)  -  The earth's atmosphere has weight, which is manifested by a
           downward pressure.  A column of air extending from the earth's surface to the top of the
           atmosphere exerts a pressure on the earth's surface equivalent to a column of mercury 29.92
           inches, or 76 centimeters, or 760 millimeters high, or a column of water 34 feet high.  This
           pressure is 1013.2 millibars or hectopascals (mb/hPa) (units normally used on weather maps).
           The atmosphere exerts a pressure on the earth's surface amounting to about 14.7 pound per
           square inch, or about one ton per square foot.

           Public Storm Warning Signals  -  It is the tropical cyclone warning signals used by the
           Philippine weather bureau.  Click here to view. 


           Quadrant  (in Storm Warnings)  -  The 90-degree sector of the storm centered on a
           designated cardinal point of the compass.  An eight-point compass rose is used when referring
           to quadrants.  Example: The north quadrant refers to the sector of the storm from 315° through
           360° to 045°.


           Rapid Deepening  -  A decrease in the minimum sea-level pressure (mslp) of a tropical
           cyclone of 1.75 mb/hr or 42 mb for 24 hours (Holliday and Thompson 1979).

           Recurvature  -  The turning of a tropical cyclone from an initial path toward the west and
           poleward to east and poleward, after moving poleward of the mid-tropospheric subtropical
           ridge axis.

           Relocated  -  A term used in an advisory/bulletin/warning  to indicate that a vector drawn from
           the preceding advisory/bulletin/warning position to the latest known position is not necessarily a
           reasonable representation of the cyclone's movement.

           Reverse-Oriented Monsoon Trough  -  The distinguishing characteristics of a
           reverse-oriented monsoon trough in the western North Pacific are a SW-NE (i.e., reverse)
           orientation of the trough axis, and the penetration of the trough axis into subtropical areas
           normally the province of easterly flow also known as easterlies. 


           Sea Swells  -  Decaying waves (originating from a strong tropical cyclone), which may persist
           for a long, long time and travel great distances.

           Semicircle (in Storm Warnings)  -  The 180-degree sector of the storm centered on the
           designated cardinal point of the compass.  A four-point compass rose is used when referring to
           a semicircle.  Example:  The south semicircle refers to the segment of the storm from 090°
           through 180° to 270°.

           Severe Weather Bulletin  -  It is the warning issued by the Philippine weather bureau,
           PAGASA in disseminating tropical cyclone information.  Severe weather bulletin is used
           whenever a tropical cyclone is within the Philippine area of responsibility or PAR.  There are
           two types of bulletins:

        • Alert  -  A type of severe weather bulletin issued every twelve (12) hours or twice a day (11am and 11pm).  It is used whenever a tropical cyclone develops or enters the PAR but has no direct effect to the country.
        • Warning  -  A type of severe weather bulletin issued every six (6) hours or four times a day (4am, 11am, 4pm, and 11pm).  It is used or upgraded from alert status whenever a tropical cyclone threatens or is starting to affect the country.   At this level, storm warning signal(s) is(are) now hoisted in areas affected by the tropical cyclone.

           Significant Tropical Cyclone  -  A tropical cyclone becomes "significant" with the issuance of
           the first numbered warning by the responsible warning agency.

           Significant Tropical Weather Advisory  -  A daily message describing significant tropical
           activity and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) - Guam's evaluation of its potential for
           development into a significant tropical cyclone.

           Size  -  The areal extent of a tropical cyclone, usually measured radially outward from the center
           to the outer-most closed isobar.  Based on an average radius of the outer-most closed isobar,
           size categories in degrees of latitude follow: <2° = very small, 2° to 3° = small, 3° to 6° =
           medium (average), 6° to 8° = large, and 8° or greater = very large (Brand 1972 and a
           modification of Merrill 1982).

           Standard Gust Factor  -  1.20 to 1.25 over water (example:  a 120 kts. gust  = 120 kts.
           sustained winds).  1.60 over land (example: a 120 kt. gust = 75 kts. sustained winds) (Atkinson

           Steering Ridge  -  is the elongated area of High Pressure which steers a tropical cyclone.

           Storm  -  Any disturbed state of the earth's atmosphere, especially as affecting the earth's
           surface, and strongly implying destructive or otherwise unpleasant weather (tornadoes,
           thunderstorms, tropical cyclones, extratropical cyclones, blizzards, ice storms, sandstorms, dust
           storms, etc.).  Winds of 89 kph (48 kts.) or greater, when not associated with tropical weather

           Storm Surge  -  A rapid rise in the water level produced by onshore typhoon and hurricane
           winds and falling atmospheric pressure.  The storm surge normally occurs just to the right (in the
           Northern Hemisphere) and just to the left (in the Southern Hemisphere) of the cyclone's center,
           and either shortly precedes or accompanies the arrival of the center (or "eye").
           Storm Tide  -  An abnormal rise of the sea as a result of storm winds.  The storm tide may
           occur in basins not normally affected by tide.  It may also flood normally dry lowlands in coastal

           Strength  -  The average wind speed of the surrounding low-level wind flow, usually measured
           within a one to three degree annulus of the center of a tropical cyclone (Weatherford and Gray

           Subsidence  -  A descending motion of air in the atmosphere, usually with the implication that
           the condition extends over a rather broad area.  As the air descends, it is heated adiabatically
           (no transfer of heat or mass; the air is warmed by compression as it descends), and becomes
           more dry.  Good weather is usually associated with subsidence.

           Subtropical Cyclone  -  A low pressure system that forms over the ocean in the subtropics and
           has some characteristics of a tropical circulation, but not a central dense overcast.  Although of
           upper cold low or low-level baroclinic origins, the system can transition to a tropical cyclone.

           Subtropics  -  The indefinite "belts" in each hemisphere between the tropics and temperate
           regions.  The polar boundaries are considered to be roughly 35° - 40°N and S latitudes, but vary
           greatly according to continental influence.  They are farther poleward on the west coasts of
           continents and farther equatorward on the east coasts.

           Super Typhoon (STY) -  A typhoon with maximum sustained 1-minute mean surface winds of
           242 kph (130 kt) or greater.  * It is coined and used only by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center

           Suspect Area  -  An area suspected of containing a developing or existing tropical cyclone.


           Tropical Cyclone  -  A non-frontal, migratory low-pressure system, usually of synoptic scale,
           originating over tropical or subtropical waters and having a definite organized circulation.  The
           center is normally warmer than the surroundings.  Globally, tropical cyclone is categorized into
           three types(with the exception of the fourth):
        • Tropical Depression (TD)  -  A tropical cyclone with maximum sustained 1-minute mean surface winds of 61 kph (33 kt.) or less.
        • Tropical Storm (TS)  -  A tropical cyclone with maximum 1-minute mean sustained surface winds in the range of 63 to 117 kph (34 to 63 kt.), inclusive.
        • Typhoon / Hurricane (TY/HURR)  -  A tropical cyclone with maximum sustained 1-minute mean surface winds of 119 to 239 kph (64 to 129 kt.).  West of 180° E longitude they are called typhoons and east of 180° E longitude -- hurricanes.
        • Super Typhoon (STY)  -  A typhoon with maximum sustained 1-minute mean surface winds of 242 kph (130 kt.) or greater.

           Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (TCFA)  -  A  message advising of the possible or
           probable formation of a tropical cyclone.  It is issued only by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center

           Tropical Cyclone Warning (TCW)  -  A message issued by responsible forecast activities
           which provides details of a tropical cyclone location, intensity, size, and movement.

           Tropical Disturbance  -   A discrete system of apparently organized convection, generally 100
           to 300 nm (185 to 555 km) in diameter, originating in the tropics or subtropics, having a
           non-frontal, migratory character and having maintained its identity for 12 to 24 hours.  The
           system may or may not be associated with a detectable perturbation of the low-level wind or
           pressure field. It is the basic generic designation which, in successive stages of development,
           may be classified as a tropical depression, tropical storm, typhoon, or super typhoon.

           Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Trough (TUTT)  -  A dominant climatological system and a
           daily upper-level synoptic feature of the summer season, over the tropical North Atlantic, North
           Pacific and South Pacific Oceans (Sadler 1979).  Cold core lows in the TUTT are referred to as
           cells, or TUTT cells.

           Tropical Wave (or Easterly Wave)  -  A trough or cyclonic curvature maximum in the
           trade-wind easterlies.  The wave may reach maximum amplitude in the lower middle
           troposphere, or may be the reflection of an upper-troposhere cold-low or equatorward extension
           of a middle-latitude trough.

           Tropics  -  The zone of earth's surface which lies between the Tropic of Cancer (approx. 23°
           27'N lat.) and the Tropic of Capricorn (approx. 23° 27'S lat.).  Same as the Torrid Zone.

           Typhoon Season  -  There is no true typhoon season.  Typhoons in the western Pacific
           can--and do--occur in every month of the year.  However, 90 percent of the typhoons occur
           between early June and late December.  A maximum (22.6 percent) of the total occurs in
           August, and a minimum (0.6 percent) in February. 


           Veering  -  Refers to the shifting of the wind direction of a tropical cyclone observed by the
           observer  from northeast through southeast by way of east (also known as First Wind).  It also
           means that the storm is passing south of the locality (in the Northern Hemisphere).

           Vortex Fix  -  The location of the surface and/or flight level center of a tropical cyclone or
           subtropical cyclone obtained by reconnaissance aircraft penetration.


           Wall Cloud  (or Eye Wall)  -  An organized band of deep cumuliform clouds that immediately
           surrounds the area of a tropical cyclone.  The wall cloud may entirely enclose or partially
           surround the center.  This is the area where the strongest wind and rain of a tropical cyclone can
           be found.  Wall cloud and eye wall are used synonymously.

           Westerly Wind Burst  (WWB)  -  A short-duration low-level westerly wind event along and near
           the equator in the western Pacific Ocean (and sometimes in the Indian Ocean) (Luther et al.
           1983).  Typically, a westerly wind burst (WWB) lasts several days and has westerly winds of at
           least 19 kph (10 kt) (Keen 1988).  Most WWBs occur during the monsoon transition months of
           April-May, and November-December.  They show some relationship to the El Nino Southern
           Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon (Luther et al. 1983; Ramage 1986).  Some WWBs are even
           more energetic, with wind speeds of 59 kph (30 kt) observed during well-developed systems.
           These intense WWBs are associated with a large cluster of deep-convective clouds along the
           equator.  An intense WWB is a necessary precursor to the formation of tropical cyclone twins
           symmetrical with respect to the equator (Keen 1982; Lander 1990).

           Wind (and balance of forces)  -  Air in motion relative to the surface of the earth.  Wind is a
           balance of three forces (if we neglect curvature):  (1) the coriolis (or horizontal deflecting) force,
           (2) the frictional force, and (3) the pressure force.  This balance results in the wind blowing
           across the isobars at angles 15° over water (because friction is less) and about 30° over land
           (where friction is greater), in the direction from higher toward lower pressure.

           Wind, First  -  The initial tropical cyclone winds as observed on the surface from northwest thru
           west (if the storm will pass north of the locality) or from northeast thru east (if the storm will pass
           south of the locality).  This means that the tropical cyclone is approaching.  The term is
           synonymously used as backing or veering.

           Wind, Second  -  The final tropical cyclone winds as observed on the surface from southwest
           thru south (if the storm just passed north of the locality) or from southeast thru south (if the
           storm just passed south of the locality).  This means that the tropical cyclone is now leaving or
           just starting to leave the area.  The term is synonymously used as backing or veering.


        X, Y, & Z

        Joint  Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC),  1996:  Appendix A (Definitions).  1996 Annual Tropical Cyclone
             Report, JTWC, pp 320-322.

        Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center West (NPMOCW)/JTWC, 1998:  A Synopsis of
             Super Typhoon Paka, NPMOCW/JTWC, http://www.npmocw.navy.mil/npmocw/prods/paka.html

        Kotsch, W.J. and R. Henderson, 1984:  Weather Definitions, Displays, and Warnings / Tropical Cyclones.
             Heavy Weather Guide, Naval Institute, Anapolis, Maryland, pp 2-15 / pp 75-113.

        Landsea, C.W., 1998:  Why Don't We Try To Destroy Tropical Cyclones?  Frequently Asked-Questions
             (FAQ): Hurricanes, Typhoons and Tropical Cyclones, NOAA AOML, Hurricane Research Division,

        Pardo, R.R., 1990:  A Primer on Terms Used By PAGASA.  Philippine Almanac: Book of Facts 1990, Aurora
             Publications, pp 968-969.

      Copyright © 1997-1998 David Michael V. Padua
      Naga City, Philippines
      All Rights Reserved.

      Updated:  Friday, 16 July 2004
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